Re: poor fat digestion and shiny manure
Eleanor Kellon, VMD
---In EquineCushings@..., <bmeyer@...> wrote :
Hi Dr. Kellon,
I'm so interested in your reply that ALCAR has no impact on fat metabolism. .........
I didn't say ALCar has no impact on fat metabolism. I said it doesn't mobilize fat or cause it to be excreted into the manure. It doesn't do either of those things.
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Could it be different for horses than other animals and humans? Or maybe the acetylated form acts differently then L-Carnitine?
I've used Acetyl-L-Carnitine for decades with Insulin Resistant clients and athletes in large part for its effects on fat metabolism, transporting fats into the cell to be burned for fuel. ..........
Neither ALCar nor L-carnitine transport fats into the cells. L-carnitine is the carrier for long chain fatty acids derived from triglycerides to be carried into the mitochondria.
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It utilizes Pantothenic Acid (B5) as part of Acetyl-CoA which is why earlier I mentioned B5 and fat metaboof fat................
ALCar and L-carnitine have nothing to do with B5 either. B5 is needed to synthesize Coenzyme-A but is not part of CoA and CoA synthesis has nothing to do with ALCar or L-carnitine.
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This is the process:
Fatty acids are cleaved from the glycerol backbone of triglycerides. They are picked up by specific transporters on the cell surface and carried to the interior of the cell. To be burned, they must cross the membrane of the mitochondria inside the cell. For long chain fatty acids, this requires an L-carnitine as a carrier. The fatty acid and L-carnitine combine to produce an acylcarnitine which can cross the mitochondrial membrane.
Once inside the mitochondria, the long chain fatty acid is serially broken down to acetyl groups. The acetyl groups can combine with CoA to be burned for energy or bind to the free L-carnitine to produce acetyl-L-carnitine which is transported out of the mitochondria and back into the body of the cell.
One of the effects of acetyl-L-carnitine is to activate the AMPK enzyme complex which encourages the burning of glucose as a fuel. This in turn increases the demand for glucose and the uptake of glucose by the cell, a favorable effect for IR.
Activation of AMP kinase enhances sensitivity of muscle glucose transport to insulin | Endocrinology and Metabolism
ALCar can also be converted to L-carnitine, further enabling entry of long chain fats into the mitochondria. ALCar and L-carnitine are also known to have long term effects of encouraging increased production of mitochondria in the cells, which improves the capacity for fat burning and improves the efficiency of glucose burning. In summary, processes for burning glucose and fat as fuel are enhanced, decreasing the accumulation of fat as weight gain.
Eleanor in PA