Re: Candy Update: Invokana on board Questions and Concerns re. symptoms and diet


Hi, Nancy.
We evaluate nitrate in forage using Dry Matter values. EA quantifies nitrates in two ways:
1- PPM Nitrate-Nitrogen, which means parts per million of nitrate as nitrogen
2- % Nitrate [ion]
Other references (including posts I've made) also use a third way to quantify nitrate: 
3- PPM Nitrate [ion]

To convert PPM Nitrate-Nitrogen to % Nitrate, multiply PPM Nitrate-Nitrogen by 0.000443.
To convert % Nitrate to PPM Nitrate ion, just move the decimal place 4 spaces to the right (multiply by 10,000).
So if PPM Nitrate-Nitrogen is 226, then % Nitrate ion is 0.1 and PPM Nitrate ion is 1001.

I'm happy to say that the nitrate guidance in Files doesn't require any math conversion from EA reports: both PPM Nitrate-Nitrogen and % Nitrate Ion are listed.

An easy rule of thumb is that if % Nitrate is 0.25 or less, the hay is probably safe for most equines. I personally use % Nitrate of 0.1% or less (PPM nitrate ion of 1000 or less) as ideal, based on Dr Kellon's informed opinion and the inherent variation of nitrate within any load of hay. We wish there were detailed research on equines to confirm these levels of safe nitrates, but to the best of my knowledge, there isn't. We do know that high nitrates can cause laminitis, and, at a very high level, death. 

Cass, Sonoma Co., CA 2012
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