Farriers formula and iron overload


lj friedman
 

I started farriers formula  as part of my emergency diet. Now that it is high in iron and I suspect iron overload, are there any products like farriers formula that are much lower in iron?  lj friedman san diego nov 2014


ECHistory8



Kerry Isherwood
 

I don't think Farrier's Formula contains iron. 

Please LMK if I'm misreading the Farrier's Formula label, or if I'm missing iron listed by an alternate name or precursor(?), but from what I can tell FF does *not* contain iron as per its guaranteed analysis.  I have been using it for my IR gelding with crummy feet for over a year with very good results.

Link to guaranteed analysis:

http://www.lifedatalabs.com/ffo-ingredients-and-analysis

Kerry in NY
Pinky Sept 2014
Tofurky Nov 2014


lj friedman
 

I saw this posting on the web.. Cant vouch for its validity but... 

 The most effective supplement? It's what's NOT in it that makes it better. No iron. Iron and its partner in crime...manganese. 
Many labels won't list the iron content on the analysis. What you don't know won't hurt you...but you're not eating it, the horse is. If you see words like ferrous, calcium phosphate, sulphur or high manganese, know also the iron is high. 
Part of my homework in nutrition class was to find a supplement that complimented our individual hay tests. Since iron wasn't on analysis for Farrier's Formula, (and this was years ago before the double strength came out) I called them to ask them how much iron was in it. They wouldn't tell me. So I sent some to a lab to get it tested and it came back with a disgusting amount of iron in it. No wonder they wouldn't tell me! I don't recommend it anymore.
Iron is a real baddie to a horse. Iron deletes the uptake of copper and zinc, which is very important for good hoof health. The little bit of copper and zinc that are in FF have no chance with the iron that is being delivered with it....waste of money. If you wish to feed biotin, then feed biotin. You can get pure biotin at Uckele. You can also get a higher and more effective amount of copper and zinc and no iron and the same biotin with California Trace minerals. 
I will post both links so that you can compare them yourself. The California Trace website also has a handy calculator there.

Farrier's Formula
Farrier's Formula Double Strength Nutrition Information

California Trace
California Trace - Nutritional Support for Horses

If you wish to know just how bad iron is, just google "iron overload in horses"

Just food for thought. I know you guys are seeing the results of the biotin and it can take up to 7 months to see a difference. Biotin is a B vitamin, no more, no less and just a small part of the nutrition that is needed for healthy hooves. The trace minerals are far more important and with no iron added to the California Trace, you get sufficient copper and zinc to fight the iron that's in the rest of his daily intake, instead of increasing iron/deleting copper and zinc with Farrier's Formula all by itself. Its all about balance. Geez! Big imbalance with calcium and phosphorus as well! Not good either!
 


Lorna Cane
 



>I started farriers formula  as part of my emergency diet.


The emergency diet recommended by the group does not contain FF. So,do you mean literally that the FF is part of your own emergency diet protocol?


> Now that it is high in iron and I suspect iron overload, are there any products like farriers formula that are much lower in iron? 


Do you mean with the same amounts of trace minerals as FF ?


Are you feeding precisely what is  in your Case history,as it was updated today?

I ask because I didn't see the lab numbers entered,so wondered if there were other details needing updating as well.


You have had some good people helping you balance Jesse's diet privately.They are very skilled.

If you can follow precisely the suggestions made , you are bound to notice a difference in Jesse.


Of course you would notice *more* of a difference if your Balancers had the advantage of working from an accurate hay analysis.

Not having an accurate analysis of the major part of Jesse's diet puts you at a disadvantage.This makes it even more imperative that your Balancer's  suggestions are followed  to a "T".


I hope this makes sense. 



Lorna in Ontario,Canada
ECIR Moderator 2002


*See What Works in Equine Nutrition*
http://www.ecirhorse.com/images/stories/Success_Story_3_-Ollies_Story__updated.pdf


https://www.facebook.com/ECIRGroup



 


Maggie
 

LJ,

I am leaving your post intact below for reference.  This is just a reminder for you that when you write something like this:  "I saw this posting on the web.", you need to please provide the source of your information.  Did you find this in the ECIR archives, on some random website, or ??  If it's from our archives, please also include a link to the original message.  If it's something you found browsing the web, then include a link to the site so that the volunteers and members can read it for themselves and separate what we know to be true from a lot of fiction and/or misinformation floating around "the web.".  It's exactly this reason: "Cant vouch for its validity but... " that we ask this of you.  Thanks for your cooperation!

Maggie, Chancey and Spiral in VA 
March 2011
EC moderator/Primary Response


Subject: [EquineCushings] Re: Farriers formula and iron overload

 

I saw this posting on the web.. Cant vouch for its validity but... 


 The most effective supplement? It's what's NOT in it that makes it better. No iron. Iron and its partner in crime...manganese. 
Many labels won't list the iron content on the analysis. What you don't know won't hurt you...but you're not eating it, the horse is. If you see words like ferrous, calcium phosphate, sulphur or high manganese, know also the iron is high. 
Part of my homework in nutrition class was to find a supplement that complimented our individual hay tests. Since iron wasn't on analysis for Farrier's Formula, (and this was years ago before the double strength came out) I called them to ask them how much iron was in it. They wouldn't tell me. So I sent some to a lab to get it tested and it came back with a disgusting amount of iron in it. No wonder they wouldn't tell me! I don't recommend it anymore.
Iron is a real baddie to a horse. Iron deletes the uptake of copper and zinc, which is very important for good hoof health. The little bit of copper and zinc that are in FF have no chance with the iron that is being delivered with it....waste of money. If you wish to feed biotin, then feed biotin. You can get pure biotin at Uckele. You can also get a higher and more effective amount of copper and zinc and no iron and the same biotin with California Trace minerals. 
I will post both links so that you can compare them yourself. The California Trace website also has a handy calculator there.

Farrier's Formula
Farrier's Formula Double Strength Nutrition Information

California Trace
California Trace - Nutritional Support for Horses

If you wish to know just how bad iron is, just google "iron overload in horses"

Just food for thought. I know you guys are seeing the results of the biotin and it can take up to 7 months to see a difference. Biotin is a B vitamin, no more, no less and just a small part of the nutrition that is needed for healthy hooves. The trace minerals are far more important and with no iron added to the California Trace, you get sufficient copper and zinc to fight the iron that's in the rest of his daily intake, instead of increasing iron/deleting copper and zinc with Farrier's Formula all by itself. Its all about balance. Geez! Big imbalance with calcium and phosphorus as well! Not good either!
 


Eleanor Kellon, VMD
 


--In EquineCushings@..., <kerry.isherwood@...> wrote :

I don't think Farrier's Formula contains iron. 
= = = = = = = = =

It doesn't contain added iron but there will be iron present from the alfalfa, possibly from processing into a pellet as well.  I'm sure there is iron in California Trace also because of its ingredients (hulls and rice bran can be very high).

If it's going to be palatable, the supplement has to have a real food base so will always have iron, just not added iron.

What really matters too is the actual amount.  Something could be 500 ppm iron but 2 oz of it would only supply 28.4 mg of iron.  A pound of even very well rinsed beet pulp will have 90 to 100 mg and we all know how variable hay is.

If the horse is known to be IR or iron overloaded it is always good to know the iron in everything you feed and factor it in but in reality with something like a supplement by the time you balance tightly to the high iron in most hays the amount supplied by the supplement won't make much difference.

Eleanor in PA
www.drkellon.com
EC Co-owner
Feb 2001






Nancy C
 

I have an iron overloaded horse so it's near and dear to my heart.  I want to stay away from supplements/products that add iron and manganese.  But there is the contamination issue as well.

Kathleen is right in that most circles do not agree that non-food iron is available to the horse. We often hear that from hay, beet pulp and supplement suppliers. This would usually be from contamination - ie certainly dirt and possibly processing.

Dr Kellon had a great post on bioavilability of non-food iron that I will post in entirety. Here's the link for those of you who store these things.  :-)

https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/EquineCushings/conversations/messages/150473

 

--- In EquineCushings@..., "pposey09" <pposey@...> wrote:

> His response was: Iron picked up on hay analysis is in part due to
> contamination. It is iron oxide and it is not absorbed.

The next time someone tells you that, ask them what the source of that information is.

The horse is not a human or rat. Their digestive system is very different. Horses constantly secrete stomach acid and even iron oxide is soluble in their stomachs. The solubility of various iron forms in water is not a valid estimation of their bioavailability to a horse.

Pelleted diets containing high levels of iron contamination from the processing equipment and/or high iron contamination in calcium sources (basically rust or dirt, iron oxide) are well known to cause iron overload in in simple stomached, hind gut fermenting (like the horse) zoo animal species:

<http://library.vetmed.fu-berlin.de/resources/global/contents/VET164623/EAZWV/Heidelberg%20PDF/Microsoft%20Word%20-%20Clauss.pdf>

That study concentrates on dietary tannins in the natural diet blocking iron absorption, but we also know from other animals that when hind gut fermentation is increased, iron absorption increases.

Even in young foals that may not have peak fermentation capacity, dirt is an important iron source and being deprived of it causes iron deficiency anemia:

<http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2001.tb01579.x/abstract>

The same thing is seen in pigs raised on concrete.

The statement that high iron is not a problem for most horses also has no basis in fact - i.e. studies. In Dr. Smith's initial studies on iron status, 28% of horses from a slaughter sample were iron overloaded:

http://jn.nutrition.org/content/114/4/677.full.pdf

The health implications of this are not known because it has never been studied. That's not the same thing as saying they don't exist. For example, arthritis is the most common consequence of iron overload in people. More relevant here is that insulin resistant horses are very prone to iron overload. See study in the files.

Eleanor in PA
www.drkellon.com
EC Co-owner
Feb 2001

******************************
Availability of non-food iron is why we say rinse/soak/rinse beet pulp.  Why Speedi Beet is generally higher in iron than BP shreds. Why we tell folks with excessively high iron hay to rinse it before feeding.

Knowing what is in your diet, in how large an amount and balancing excess and deficiency is key. I've kept Dr Kellon's previous post on Farrier's Formula complete as well.

FACT: Iron overload has been identified as a significant factor in IR horses that are not receiving a mineral-balanced diet. (Nielsen, BD, Vick, MM, Dennis, PM, 2012. A potential link between insulin resistance and iron overload disorder in browsing rhinoceroses investigated through the use of an equine model. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2012 Sep;43(3 Suppl):S61-5.)
See  E. M. Kellon, VMD, Iron Overload and Insulin Resistance, 2013 NO Laminitis! Proceedings, Equine Cushing's and Insulin Resistance Group Inc.

 





---In EquineCushings@..., <drkellon@...> wrote :


--In EquineCushings@..., <kerry.isherwood@...> wrote :

I don't think Farrier's Formula contains iron. 
= = = = = = = = =

It doesn't contain added iron but there will be iron present from the alfalfa, possibly from processing into a pellet as well.  I'm sure there is iron in California Trace also because of its ingredients (hulls and rice bran can be very high).

If it's going to be palatable, the supplement has to have a real food base so will always have iron, just not added iron.

What really matters too is the actual amount.  Something could be 500 ppm iron but 2 oz of it would only supply 28.4 mg of iron.  A pound of even very well rinsed beet pulp will have 90 to 100 mg and we all know how variable hay is.

If the horse is known to be IR or iron overloaded it is always good to know the iron in everything you feed and factor it in but in reality with something like a supplement by the time you balance tightly to the high iron in most hays the amount supplied by the supplement won't make much difference.

Eleanor in PA
www.drkellon.com
EC Co-owner
Feb 2001






Eleanor Kellon, VMD
 

trace minerals are far more important and with no iron added to the California Trace, you get sufficient copper and zinc to fight the iron that's in the rest of his daily intake, instead of increasing iron/deleting copper and zinc with Farrier's Formula all by itself. Its all about balance.

= = == = = = =  =  ==

I just want to comment briefly here because that statement could be misleading.  There is no way to know if CA Trace or any other supplement will give you enough copper and zinc without an analysis of the diet.  The diet cannot be balanced until you know what your starting point is.  The only "good" supplement choice is one that correctly balances your diet.  For example, almost every diet needs more zinc and copper but how much more depends on the level of iron and manganese.

Eleanor in PA
www.drkellon.com
EC Co-owner
Feb 2001


 


lj friedman
 

I forgot to reference this post.. It was just from someone,, no known expert. just a fellow horse owner. who posted on the horseforum.. lj friedman san diego  nov 2014


 

I am no expert and I have NOT taken the classes.  However when I put my 2 "special" horses on ground, stabilized flax and a "balancer" specific to the hay they eat,  hoof issues disappeared.  My special horses are a) now 16 year old PPSM mare, who crushed her left front hoof and b) Jazzi, my now 14 year old IR mare who had 5 bouts of laminitis.  I believe all the "hoof" supplements are a total waste of money.  Just balance the hay and omegas and  most if not all hoof trouble will go away.  Just my opinion and experience.
Nancy Reed and Jazzi
March 2013
san DIego County


gentpony
 

Back in 2008, a group member was told by the manufacturer of Farrier’s Formula,

Utilizing our dietary software program, the calculated iron level in Farrrier's Formula is 2,353 ppm. We do not currently include iron on our guaranteed analysis, and therefore have not included iron with the independent laboratory analysis that is performed periodically. Based on our calculated levels (which are accurate since pelleting, processing and storage do not alter minerals), at 2,353 ppm a 1,000 lb horse with hoof problems consuming the recommended one cup per day would have an intake of 400 mg per day of iron.    

See msg:

https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/EquineCushings/conversations/messages/104930

 

Later that same year, a different member received further information from the company:

"Farrier's Formula contains iron in the form of iron oxide. The iron oxide is a component of the ingredient "hydrated sodium calcium alluminosilicate". This ingredient is a source of many important nutrients, including Iron, Silica, Magnesium, Manganese, Potassium, Calcium and Phosphorus."

 

This member was also told by the manufacturer that the iron was really not that absorbable because of relationships with other ingredients in the product.

See msg here:

https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/EquineCushings/conversations/messages/120505

 

……….

It is very interesting that the company’s American webpage does not mention anything about iron, magnesium or manganese in its guaranteed analysis found here:

http://www.lifedatalabs.com/ffo-ingredients-and-analysis

 

But click on the Guaranteed Analysis link found on this UK web page to see iron in the list of minerals, but at a different concentration than disclosed above:

 

http://www.viovet.co.uk/Farriers_Formula_for_Horses/c713/

Farriers Formula (UK source)

Guaranteed Analysis:

**Iron  1,310 mg/kg,   Amount per 170 g (1 cup, 237 ml) :    Poor Bioavailability

 

**The iron content in Farrier's Formula is derived from the pellet conditioner (hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate, natural clay) in the form of iron oxide. The intestinal absorption of iron from iron oxide is minimal; therefore Farrier's Formula provides a minimal and insignificant amount of absorbable iron. If iron supplementation is desirable another form of iron such as iron proteinates, or other bio-available sources of iron should be utilized.

 

………..

 

Already found in this thread, Dr Kellon has informed us that iron oxide is absorbed in the horse (msg  150473, linked by Nancy), and that pelleting can add iron.

 

Based on Iron 1,310 mg/kg,   170 grams (1 cup) would contain 222 mg Iron.

Using NRCPlus balancing methods on just this supplement, the copper and zinc levels in Farrier’s Formula are high enough to balance this amount of iron, with some copper (33mg) and zinc (85 mg) still “available” to apply to imbalances in the total diet, (but we do not know the status of manganese).  Whether this is enough to correct any imbalances in the total diet depends on the analysis of this diet, as Dr Kellon has said.

 

However, using the manufacturer’s calculations of 400 mg iron in 170 grams, there would not be enough copper or zinc to cover this high level of iron, which would only increase the imbalance of the total diet.

 

Eva

SW Ontario,  March 2005


Eleanor Kellon, VMD
 


---In EquineCushings@..., <nancy@...> wrote :

I believe all the "hoof" supplements are a total waste of money.  Just balance the hay and omegas and  most if not all hoof trouble will go away.
= = = = = = =

You are right about that, but can't balance to hay type.  You have to balance to mineral profile which will vary depending on the region. 

Southern California is one of a few small islands in the US where trace minerals in forages are actually well balanced just deficient across the board.  This makes it much easier for one size fits all supplements to get the job done.

Eleanor in PA
www.drkellon.com
EC Co-owner
Feb 2001


lj friedman
 

This email is from the DVM at Farriers Formula,, concerning iron overload. Any thoughts on this? 

The iron level in Farrier’s Formula Double Strength has been reduced to 222 mg/lb (as fed basis) as tested by an independent lab. An 85 gram serving (1/2 cup, or a 4 fluid oz. measure) will deliver the horse approximately 42 mg of iron in the form of iron oxide.

 

Iron is not added to any of Life Data’s equine products; however iron oxide is a component of an ingredient that helps condition the pellets. The amount of this pellet conditioner in the product was reduced in mid-2014 to less than ½ of the prior formulation. The pellet conditioner is a natural clay that has been cleaned and  sterilized. This pellet conditioner reduction has not affected the quality of the pellets.

 

Research has implicated that an excess of absorbable iron in the diet, or iron overload, may be linked to insulin resistance in horses.

 

More information is needed, such as double blind research studies, on whether iron oxide is indeed broken down in the horse’s gut and absorbed as iron in any significant amounts. Our thoughts and conventional wisdom dictates that iron oxide is tightly bound and is not broken down in significant amounts by gastric juices or microbes in the gut. This logic would also explain why horses living their life on red soils and red sands (i.e. high levels of iron oxide) remain healthy, even following centuries of evolution.

 

As a comparison, a typical cool season grass hay contains 194 ppm of iron on a dry matter basis. A horse consuming 15 lbs. of this 90% dry matter hay per day would have an intake of 1,189 mg of iron per day, compared to an insignificant 42 mg per day in Farrier’s Formula Double Strength. Add the likely fact that the iron oxide in Farrier’s Formula does not provide absorbable (bioavailable) iron, and forages do provide bioavailable iron, it is apparent that Farrier’s Formula Double Strength is not a significant source of iron to a horse.

 

Supplements that contain iron sulfate, chelated iron, or iron proteinates do provide absorbable iron – and usually too much of it. Iron proteinates are particularly disturbing – the intestinal wall is absorbing an amino acid but the iron is hitching a ride. Many equine supplements contain these ingredients.

 

Although adult horses typically have sufficient stores of iron, young growing horses often need additional iron. If iron supplementation is desirable a bio-available source of iron should be utilized. Blood testing for iron status (ferritin, iron binding capacity, etc.) and iron anemia (RBC, reticulocytes, MCV, hypochromasia, etc) can be performed. Of particular interest is that the mare is much like the sow in that iron does not pass the placental barrier readily. Many foals with iron deficiency  are from mares with normal to low normal blood levels of iron. This is the reason many newborn pigs and foals require supplemental iron.

 

Please reply – this subject is interesting. We have reduced the level of iron oxide in Life Data products due to consumer misunderstanding of our products. The iron oxide reduction in Life Data products does not have a nutritional impact on the horse. Also if you can provide me with the lot number of your Farrier’s Formula Double Strength, I would be happy to let you know whether you have the reduced iron oxide formula that we started producing in 2014.

 

Thanks for the inquiry! I am looking forward to hearing back from you.

 

Scott Gravlee, DVM, CNS

Equine Nutrition Consultant

Life Data Labs, Inc

Home - Life Data Labs USA

 



Kathy Brinkerhoff
 

Hi Lj,

You have been part of this informative thread on Farrier's Formula, iron overload and the reason why we balance trace minerals to iron in the diet;   so I am curious as to  your thoughts regarding this email you received from Dr. Gravlee of Life Data Labs (Farrier's Formula)?   Will you go forward continuing to supplement with FF?

Kathy Brinkerhoff

SE/WI  10/12




lj friedman
 

I posted his reply to get the groups reaction.. I was told from a balancer, name withheld, that 4 oz of FF isnt going to make much of any difference but my hay pellets and bp will. I do as the group thinks is correct. So, I await your input and will do as you suggest/recommend..

lj friedman san diego nov 2014

ECHistory8

 




Kerry Isherwood
 

I know I definitely will keep using it, at least on my one IR that is relatively well controlled! It has made an incredible transformation in horse being able to maintain hoof capsule shape--he used to splay & flare like an old foundered broodmare by week 3 post shoeing. Now he maintains beautiful shape all the way to 5 weeks.

Out of desperation i started feeding FF last March but purposely didnt tell my farrier (to amuse myself with my informal "blind" study). I almost fell over when, after 3 months of maint dose FF, said farrier--who is notoriously gruff--exclaimed, "wow, his feet look great! You must be finally riding him right!" I let that charade continue for another 6 months until my farrier's ego got to be too much by thinking his divine hands had transformed the impossible into gorgeous textbook feet and i finally told him i was using FF. It has remained a stalemate between us that we just dont talk about ;)


Disclaimer: I started FF way before my gelding was diagnosed IR. My farrier has repeatedly told me that the gelding's feet have evidence of past laminitic damage but I brushed it off as meaning way WAY back in his history before i rescued him from the kill auction. I mean, come on, I would certainly notice if my horse was foundering, right? Well, at our most recent shoeing (two weeks ago) my farrier showed me the tell-tale stretched laminar ring around both front toes -- ugh, my worst nightmare. This horse is never, ever lame! I only discovered he was an IR horse in Nov 2014 so obviously since then he has been under house arrest in a drylot with my IR/PPID mare. Luckily I have local hay that tested at roughly 6% (ESC+starch) and Tofurky loves the ODTB cubes and is in perfect body condition. I am in the process of balancing minerals as per my full hay analysis and if its shown that i need to discontinue FF bc of overload of iron or other, of course I will, though I truely believe there is something in the FF beyond the usual biotin/methionine that was missing in my horse's diet (before I discovered his IR status and corrected his diet) that drastically helped my gelding's hoof quality. Higher quality protein? A specific amino acid? Idk, but theres no doubt FF has helped this particular horse. (i tried streamlining diet by switching to Horsetech's Bioflax--ground flax plus comparable amts biotin/methionine but results after several months were quite disappointing)

FWIW,
Kerry in NY
Pinky Sept 2014
Tofurky Nov 2014


Lorna Cane
 

Hi Kerry,

>I am in the process of balancing minerals as per my full hay analysis and if its shown that i need to discontinue FF bc of overload of iron or other, of course I will, though I truely believe there is something in the FF beyond the usual biotin/methionine that was missing in my horse's diet (before I discovered his IR status and corrected his diet) that drastically helped my gelding's hoof quality.

Higher copper, zinc? 


Lorna in Ontario,Canada
ECIR Moderator 2002


*See What Works in Equine Nutrition*
http://www.ecirhorse.com/images/stories/Success_Story_3_-Ollies_Story__updated.pdf


https://www.facebook.com/ECIRGroup





Eleanor Kellon, VMD
 


---In EquineCushings@..., <lj_friedman@...> wrote :

 I was told from a balancer, name withheld, that 4 oz of FF isnt going to make much of any difference but my hay pellets and bp will.
= = = =  === = = = =

You are missing the point here.  How good a fit any supplement is depends on the analysis of the whole diet (which you do not know) and how tight the trace mineral ratios have to be because of iron overload (which you also do not know).

Eleanor in PA
www.drkellon.com
EC Co-owner
Feb 2001


Eleanor Kellon, VMD
 

I truely believe there is something in the FF beyond the usual biotin/methionine that was missing in my horse's diet (before I discovered his IR status and corrected his diet) that drastically helped my gelding's hoof quality. Higher quality protein? A specific amino acid? Idk, but theres no doubt FF has helped this particular horse. (i tried streamlining diet by switching to Horsetech's Bioflax--ground flax plus comparable amts biotin/methionine but results after several months were quite disappointing)

= = = = = = = = = = =

Could be protein, but don't overlook copper and zinc.

Eleanor in PA
www.drkellon.com
EC Co-owner
Feb  2001


Eleanor Kellon, VMD
 

........ Of particular interest is that the mare is much like the sow in that iron does not pass the placental barrier readily. Many foals with iron deficiency  are from mares with normal to low normal blood levels of iron. This is the reason many newborn pigs and foals require supplemental iron.

 = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Neonates of ALL species are born with low iron stores. Iron has high toxicity to the fetus and newborn.  Foals can be, and have been, killed by oral iron.  Piglets are more resistant to oral iron toxicity because they have a relatively low density of iron receptors in their gut (a protective adaptation in this species with does a lot of rooting around in soil). However, it is also possible to poison piglets with oral iron.

Baby pigs develop anemia for the same reason stall confined foals do - lack of access to SOIL.  It has nothing to do with iron stores in the dam or sow.  In fact, supplementing sows even with injectable iron does not change the iron level in the piglets or in her milk.

http://old.pork.org/filelibrary/factsheets/pigfactsheets/newfactsheets/04-01-07g.pdf

Eleanor in PA
www.drkellon.com
EC Co-owner
Feb 2001