New member needs advice
I am through the emergency now and having a hard time navigating the information on the website and the discussion groups.
My horse, Mr. Black is 19 years old, 16hh, 1150 lbs. QH/draft cross. last December 2020 I had him checked for PPID and IR for a baseline.
The vet used Antech lab. Results were
ACTH 20 pg/ml
Glucose 98 mg/dl
Insulin 39 uU/ml
August 24, I noticed him laying down during the day. (Not normal) then started not moving as fast for meal times, then lame on Saturday August 28. As per vet, I began 48hrs nonstop icing, Bute 10 days, initial 10cc Banamine too. Began Doxycycline, we are a Lyme/annaplasmosis endemic area.
Monday, August 30 he was doing better, not as lame. vet drew blood for Cornell Metabolic Panel. Results:
Glucose 103 mg/dl
Colas interface. Cobas2
ACTH 46.1 Pg/ml
Insulin 53.32 ulU/ml
Leptin. 14.05 ng/ml
T4-immulite. 1.47 ug/dl
Began Prascend 1mg/day
Farrier trimmed him on Tuesday 8/31
Please help because I need feeding advice. I purchased NuZu Fenugreek grain and Vermont Blend supplements. I also have vitamin E 1000mg capsules and Flax and Remission on hand.
I am feeding 16-18lbs of soaked grass divided portioned hay 2-3 times a day. 1- 1/2lbs of NuZu, 3/8c Flax, 2000u vitamin E those amounts are divided into am/pm feedings. now I want to slowly add Vermont Blend supplement.
I need to know what is the best feeding regimen for my horse Mr. Black. I need to get his hay analysis completed. (cooperative extension Representitve is coming out this Monday to take samples) I know I need to create a case history but I’m limited on time. I will complete it soon. Meanwhile, I need help with knowing if Vermont Blend should be used with NuZu, flax and vitamin E? Or any other suggestions, I am sprinkling 2 tbs salt on his hay daily.
When do you suggest doing another metabolic panel?
Thanks so much! I appreciate your help. I’m swimming with too much information right now and I am very confused 🤔 and trying to learn.
Florence in upstate NY
Hello Florence. Here are some basics ideas to get you started… I will be sending you an official welcome letter later. You want to feed your horse 1.5 - 2.0 percent of his ideal weight…. What’s his body condition score? That percentage is for hay snd the Nuzu feed. Keep soaking your hay one hour cold water rinse it and then let it hang to drip for about 10- 15 minutes. Do this until your hay sample results come back. We use Equi Analytiical and you want to order the 603 test… wet chemistry is more accurate than the NIR options. You are definitely on the right track with the Vermont blend and salt. Start the V blend slowly just a pinch and gradually add a pinch a day till you get to the full serving…then hopefully your hay result will be back and we can see it and evaluate it for you… Will send you more diet info but take a deep breath you are in the right place. Don’t be discouraged navigating some times is a little tricky but the more you use it it will get better
Dolly and Hope's Case Histories
Hi Florence. here is our welcome letter. There is a diet section for you to review. Also with in each category you will find blue links that will bring you deeper into more information on that particular topic. You can also go up to the search bar and enter "emergency diet" and get more information-
To answer your question about retesting...we usually recommend being on the 1 mg dose of Prascend ( or whatever dose your vet has started you on) for at least 3 weeks prior to new testing. If your horse starts to become depressed or slower,he may be having a "veil" effect from the Prascend. This can occur and we recommend starting at like 1/4 of a tab and increasing every 3-4 days until you reach the full amount. If you are already at the 1 mg, then no need to go slow. But he may still have some reaction- if he does,check back with us and we can give you more information about a product that is an adaptogen that will help him work through the veil its called APF. Hope this helps.
Welcome to the group!
The ECIR Group provides the best, most up to date information on Cushing's (PPID) and Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS)/Insulin Resistance (IR). Please explore our website where you'll find tons of great information that will help you to quickly understand the main things you need to know to start helping your horse. Also open any of the links below (in blue font) for more information/instructions that will save you time.
Have you started your Case History? If you haven't done so yet, please join our case history sub-group. We appreciate you following the uploading instructions so your folder is properly set up with the documents inside. Go to this CH message with info on how to use various devices and forms. If you have any trouble, just post a message to let us know where you are stuck.
Orienting information, such as how the different ECIR sections relate to each other, message etiquette, what goes where and many how-to pages are in the Wiki. There is also an FAQs on our website that will help answer the most common and important questions new members have.
Below is a general summary of our DDT/E philosophy which is short for Diagnosis, Diet, Trim and Exercise.
DIAGNOSIS: There are two conditions dealt with here: Cushings (PPID) and Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS)/Insulin Resistance (IR). These are two separate issues that share some overlapping symptoms. An equine may be either PPID or EMS/IR, neither or both. While increasing age is the greatest risk factor for developing PPID, IR can appear at any age and may have a genetic component. Blood work is used for diagnosis as well as monitoring the level of control of each.
The fat-derived hormone leptin is also usually abnormally elevated in insulin resistance but because there are many other things which can lower or increase leptin ECIR is not recommending routine testing for this hormone. Leptin is the hormone that says "stop eating".
In Europe, adiponectin is tested instead of leptin. Adiponectin helps regulate glucose and fat burning, and maintain insulin sensitivity. Low levels are associated with EMS. It has come to be preferred over leptin because it is not influenced by things like weight or exercise, and also because it was the only factor other than insulin levels that predicted laminitis risk
*Before calling your vet to draw blood for tests, we suggest saving time and wasted money by reading these details and then sharing them with your vet so that everyone is on the same page regarding correct testing and protocols.
*Please remember to request copies of the results of all the tests done rather than just relying on verbal information. Your vet should be able to email these to you. If you have previous test results, please include those as well. All should go in your CH, but if you are having any trouble with the CH, just post in the messages for now.
Treatment: EMS is a metabolic type - not a disease - that is managed with a low sugar+starch diet and exercise (as able). The super-efficient easy keeper type breeds such as minis, ponies, Morgans, Arabs, Rockies are some of the classic examples. PPID is a progressive disease that is treated with the medication pergolide. Some, but not all, individuals may experience a temporary loss of appetite, lethargy and/or depression when first starting the medication. To avoid this "pergolide veil" (scroll down for side effects), we recommend weaning onto the drug slowly and the use of the product APF. The best long term results are seen when the ACTH is maintained in the middle of the normal range at all times, including during the annual seasonal rise. To accomplish this, the amount of medication may need to increase over time. Neither condition is ever "cured", only properly controlled for the remainder of the equine's life. If your partner is both PPID and IR then both medication and diet management will be needed.
No hay is "safe" until proven so by chemical analysis. The diet that works for IR is:
We use grass hay, tested to be under 10% ESC + starch, with minerals added to balance the excesses and deficiencies in the hay, plus salt, and to replace the fragile ingredients that are lost when grass is cured into hay, we add ground flax seed and Vitamin E. This diet is crucial for an EMS/IR horse, but also supports the delicate immune system of a PPID horse.
*Until you can get your hay tested and balanced we recommend that you soak your hay and use the emergency diet (scroll down for it). The emergency diet is not intended for long term use, but addresses some of the most common major deficiencies. Testing your hay and getting the minerals balanced to its excesses and deficiencies is the best way to feed any equine (look under the Hay Balancing file if you want professional help balancing). If you absolutely cannot test your hay and balance the minerals to it, or would like to use a "stop gap" product until you get your hay balanced, here's a list of "acceptable" ration balancers.
There is a lot of helpful information in the start here folder so it is important you read all the documents found there. The emergency diet involves soaking your untested hay for an hour in cold water or 30 minutes in hot water. This removes up to 30% of the sugar content, but no starch. Starch is worse than sugar since it converts 100% to glucose while sugar only converts 50%, so starch causes a bigger insulin spike. Make sure you dump the soaking water where the equine(s) can't get to it.
What you don't feed on the EMS/IR diet is every bit as, if not more important than, what you do feed! No grass. No grain. No sugary treats, including apples and carrots. No brown/red salt blocks which contain iron (and sometimes molasses) which interferes with mineral balancing, so white salt blocks only.
No products containing molasses. No bagged feeds with a combined sugar and starch of over 10% or starch over about 4%, or fat over about 4%. Unfortunately, even bagged feeds that say they are designed for IR and/or PPID equines are usually too high in sugar, starch and/or fat. It’s really important to know the actual analysis and not be fooled by a name that says it is suitable for EMS/IR individuals.
We do not recommend feeding alfalfa hay to EMS/IR equines as it makes many of them laminitic. Although it tends to be low in sugar, many times the starch is higher and does not soak out. Additionally, protein and calcium are quite high, which can contribute to sore footedness and make mineral balancing very difficult.
TRIM: A proper trim is toes backed and heels lowered so that the hoof capsule closely hugs and supports the internal structures of the foot. Though important for all equines, it's essential for IR and/or PPID equines to have a proper trim in place since they are at increased risk for laminitis. After any potential triggers are removed from the diet, and in PPID individuals, the ACTH is under control, the realigning trim is often the missing link in getting a laminitic equine comfortable. In general, laminitic hooves require more frequent trim adjustments to maintain the proper alignment so we recommend the use of padded boots rather than fixed appliances (i.e. shoes, clogs), at least during the initial phases of treatment.
Sometimes subclinical laminitis can be misdiagnosed as arthritis, navicular, or a host of other problems as the animal attempts to compensate for sore feet.
You are encouraged to make an album and post hoof pictures and any radiographs you might have so we can to look to see if you have an optimal trim in place. Read this section of the wiki for how to get a hoof evaluation, what photos are needed, and how to get the best hoof shots and radiographs.
EXERCISE: The best IR buster there is, but only if the equine is comfortable and non-laminitic. An individual that has had laminitis needs 6-9 months of correct realigning trims before any serious exercise can begin. Once the equine is moving around comfortably at liberty, hand walking can begin in long straight lines with no tight turns. Do not force a laminitic individual to move, or allow its other companions to do so. It will begin to move once the pain begins to subside. Resting its fragile feet is needed for healing to take place so if the animal wants to lay down, do not encourage it to get up. Place feed and water where it can be reached easily without having to move any more than necessary. Be extremely careful about movement while using NSAIDs (bute, banamine, previcox, etc.) as it masks pain and encourages more movement than these fragile feet are actually able to withstand. Additionally, NSAIDs (and icing) do not work on metabolic laminitis and long term NSAID use interferes with healing. Therefore, we recommend tapering off NSAIDs after the first week or so of use. If after a week's time your equine's comfort level has not increased, then the cause of the laminitis has not been removed and keeping up the NSAIDs isn't the answer - you need to address the underlying cause.
There is lots more information in our files and archived messages and also on our website. It is a lot of information, so take some time to go over it and feel free to ask any questions. If you are feeling overwhelmed, don't worry, you will catch on, and we are always here to help you! Once you have your case history uploaded, we can help you help your equine partner even better.
If you have any technical difficulties, please let us know so we can help you.--
Dolly and Hope's Case Histories